During that meeting, he was brought to the platform and received a standing ovation. Shortly after he returned home, Douglass died of a massive heart attack. Thousands of people passed by his coffin to show their respect. Although Douglass had attended several churches in the nation's capital, he had a pew here and donated two standing candelabras when this church had moved to a new building in He also gave many lectures there, including his last major speech, "The Lesson of the Hour.
Douglass' coffin was transported back to Rochester, New York , where he had lived for 25 years, longer than anywhere else in his life. The most influential African American of the nineteenth century, Douglass made a career of agitating the American conscience. He spoke and wrote on behalf of a variety of reform causes: women's rights, temperance, peace, land reform, free public education, and the abolition of capital punishment. But he devoted the bulk of his time, immense talent, and boundless energy to ending slavery and gaining equal rights for African Americans.
These were the central concerns of his long reform career. Douglass understood that the struggle for emancipation and equality demanded forceful, persistent, and unyielding agitation. And he recognized that African Americans must play a conspicuous role in that struggle. Less than a month before his death, when a young black man solicited his advice to an African American just starting out in the world, Douglass replied without hesitation: "Agitate!
Many public schools have also been named in his honor. Douglass still has living descendants today, such as Ken Morris, who is also a descendant of Booker T. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Frederick Douglass disambiguation. American social reformer, orator, writer, abolitionist and statesman. Anna Murray m. Helen Pitts m.
By country or region. Opposition and resistance. Abolitionism U. To my Old Master Thomas Auld. See also: List of things named after Frederick Douglass. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Biography portal Maryland portal International relations portal. The old fences around it, and the stumps in the edge of the woods near it, and the squirrels that ran, skipped, and played upon them, were objects of interest and affection.
There, too, right at the side of the hut, stood the old well. My Bondage and My Freedom. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved April 20, National Humanities Center.
Retrieved October 31, Frederick Douglass Heritage. Retrieved December 22, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved September 21, Gatewood Jr. January An Essay Review". The Florida Historical Quarterly. January 10, In Bill E. Lawson; Frank M. Kirkland eds. Frederick Douglass: A Critical Reader. Retrieved March 18, Big Ideas in U. Social Studies. The Autobiographies of Frederick Douglass.
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Phylon — , 40 1 , Since he did not talk, look, or act like a slave in the eyes of Northern audiences , Douglass was denounced as an imposter. James Frederick Douglass: A Biography. Penguin Books. January 28, Retrieved October 6, My point here is, first, the Constitution is, according to its reading, an anti-slavery document; and, secondly, to dissolve the Union, as a means to abolish slavery, is about as wise as it would be to burn up this city, in order to get the thieves out of it.
But again, we hear the motto, 'no union with slave-holders;' and I answer it, as the noble champion of liberty, N.
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Rogers , answered it with a more sensible motto, namely— ' No union with slave-holding. Narrative of the Life of an American Slave. Retrieved January 8, Frederick Douglass began his own story thus: "I was born in Tuckahoe, near Hillsborough, and about twelve miles from Easton, in Talbot county, Maryland. In successive autobiographies, Douglass gave more precise estimates of when he was born, his final estimate being He adopted February 14 as his birthday because his mother Harriet Bailey used to call him her "little valentine ".
Note that, though Amanda Barker's web site devoted to the Douglass birthplace states that it could not be found with tour books and guides, that is no longer the case. Archived from the original on December 22, Based on the extant records of Douglass's former owner, Aaron Anthony, historian Dickson Preston determined that Douglass was born in February McFeely, , p. One Nation's Definition". Retrieved November 27, Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave.
Written by himself 6 ed. London: H. Frederick Douglass , pp. New York: Scribner. NY: Scribner. Frederick Douglass , Teachinghistory. Accessed June 3, Boston: Anti-Slavery Office. Conyers The Frederick Douglass encyclopedia. Retrieved February 27, February 11, Martin March 1, The mind of Frederick Douglass. UNC Press Books. Retrieved March 7, South Coast Today. February 17, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Retrieved December 20, National Park Service ". Retrieved June 1, Diversion Books. Yale University Press. Cambridge University Press, p.
Frederick Douglass". Retrieved March 17, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Cosimo, Inc.
March 10, Retrieved March 15, Blassingame, John et al, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, II, p. Retrieved December 8, The New York Times. Retrieved February 26, Holloway House Publishing, Ruffin Frederick Douglass: Rising Up from Slavery. Retrieved April 28, Cork: Collins Press. Religion News Service. June 19, New York, NY: Scribner. Encyclopedia of African American History, — from the colonial period to the age of Frederick Douglass. Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 2, Retrieved March 3, Virginia Memory.
August 18, Text of the "Declaration of Sentiments", and the Resolutions. Retrieved on April 24, Women's Rights. Report of the Woman's Rights Convention, July 19—20, Retrieved April 24, O'Meally November 30, Spark Educational Publishing. Retrieved February 1, In Julius E.
Thompson; James L. Conyers Jr. The Frederick Douglass Encyclopedia. McFeely Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings.ocoo.staging.ctrlweb.ca/smugglers-blues-the-saga-of.php
Frederick Douglass’s 19th Century | The Nation
Chicago Review Press, Diane Publishing, February 1, , p. Morris Jr. November 2, Liveright imprint of Norton. Archived from the original hardcover on August 6, Retrieved August 2, Hint: It's not Lincoln". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, December 13, Retrieved May 11, Christian Age Office. February 4, Lee , p. Davis Voices of the African diaspora. Mercer University Press. Huffington Post. September Archived from the original on July 8, Retrieved April 19, Norton, , p.
Teaching American History. Archived from the original on April 27, American Cyclopedia. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
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Retrieved February 9, World magazine. February 13, Williamsport: Boomtown on the Susquehanna. Arcadia Publishing. Retrieved October 3, March 3, Window on Cecil County's Past. December 28, Retrieved February 18, Oxford Press. January 2, Retrieved July 1, August 26, Retrieved May 2, Retrieved June 3, The Hispanic American Historical Review. Chesebrough Frederick Douglass: Oratory from Slavery.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved April 25, Hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly church service. Interest was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. Although Freeland did not interfere with the lessons, other local slave owners were less understanding. Armed with clubs and stones, they dispersed the congregation permanently. With Douglass moving between the Aulds, he was later made to work for Edward Covey, who had a reputation as a "slave-breaker.
Eventually, however, Douglass fought back, in a scene rendered powerfully in his first autobiography. After losing a physical confrontation with Douglass, Covey never beat him again.
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Douglass tried to escape from slavery twice before he finally succeeded. Douglass married Anna Murray, a free black woman, on September 15, Douglass had fallen in love with Murray, who assisted him in his final attempt to escape slavery in Baltimore. Murray had provided him with some of her savings and a sailor's uniform.
He carried identification papers obtained from a free black seaman. Douglass made his way to the safe house of abolitionist David Ruggles in New York in less than 24 hours. Anna and Frederick then settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts, which had a thriving free black community. There they adopted Douglass as their married name. Charles and Rosetta assisted their father in the production of his newspaper The North Star. Anna remained a loyal supporter of Frederick's public work, despite marital strife caused by his relationships with several other women.
Pitts was the daughter of Gideon Pitts Jr. Their marriage caused considerable controversy, since Pitts was white and nearly 20 years younger than Douglass. Nonetheless, Douglass and Pitts remained married until his death 11 years later. After settling as a free man with his wife Anna in New Bedford in , Douglass was eventually asked to tell his story at abolitionist meetings, and he became a regular anti-slavery lecturer.
Several days after the story ran, Douglass delivered his first speech at the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society's annual convention in Nantucket. Crowds were not always hospitable to Douglass. While participating in an lecture tour through the Midwest, Douglass was chased and beaten by an angry mob before being rescued by a local Quaker family.
Following the publication of his first autobiography in , Douglass traveled overseas to evade recapture. He set sail for Liverpool on August 16, , and eventually arrived in Ireland as the Potato Famine was beginning. If the path to war was clarifying for Douglass, what followed turned out to be less so. When Douglass died suddenly of a heart attack in , his life had spanned the upheavals of the 19th century. Death may have marked one kind of ending, but as Blight shows, the voice lived on. Follow Jennifer Szalai on Twitter: jenszalai.